Pundit's Perspectives – Fri 2 Sep, 2016
A closer look at the jobs number
The post below comes from the Calculated Risk blog. The author, Bill McBride is very good at looking at the numbers and breaking down what is reported.
Employment Comments: A Decent Report
The headline jobs number was decent. Job growth averaged 232,000 over the last three months, and both the participation rate and employment-population ratio were unchanged. Wages increased slightly.
In August, the year-over-year change was 2.45 million jobs – a solid gain.
Average Hourly Earnings
This graph is based on “Average Hourly Earnings” from the Current Employment Statistics (CES) (aka “Establishment”) monthly employment report. Note: There are also two quarterly sources for earnings data: 1) “Hourly Compensation,” from the BLS’s Productivity and Costs; and 2) the Employment Cost Index which includes wage/salary and benefit compensation.
The graph shows the nominal year-over-year change in “Average Hourly Earnings” for all private employees. Nominal wage growth was at 2.4% YoY in August. This series is noisy, however overall wage growth is trending up.
Note: CPI has been running around 2%, so there has been real wage growth.
Employment-Population Ratio, 25 to 54 years old
Since the overall participation rate has declined recently due to cyclical (recession) and demographic (aging population, younger people staying in school) reasons, here is the employment-population ratio for the key working age group: 25 to 54 years old.
In the earlier period the participation rate for this group was trending up as women joined the labor force. Since the early ’90s, the participation rate moved more sideways, with a downward drift starting around ’00 – and with ups and downs related to the business cycle.
The 25 to 54 participation rate increased in August to 81.3%, and the 25 to 54 employment population ratio decreased to 77.7%.
The participation rate for this group might increase a little more (or at least stabilize for a couple of years) – although the participation rate has been trending down for this group since the late ’90s.
Part Time for Economic Reasons
From the BLS report:
The number of persons employed part time for economic reasons (sometimes referred to as involuntary part-time workers) was little changed at 6.1 million in August. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part time because their hours had been cut back or because they were unable to find a full-time job.
The number of persons working part time for economic reasons increased slightly in August. This level suggests slack still in the labor market.
These workers are included in the alternate measure of labor underutilization (U-6) that was unchanged at 9.7% in August.
Unemployed over 26 Weeks
According to the BLS, there are 2.006 million workers who have been unemployed for more than 26 weeks and still want a job. This was down slightly from 2.020 million in July.
This is generally trending down, but is still high.
There are still signs of slack (as example, elevated level of part time workers for economic reasons and U-6), but there also signs the labor market is tightening.
Overall this was a decent report. Job growth averaged 232,000 over the last three months, and 182,000 per month this year.